By Raymond Boudon, Francois Bourricaud
Unlike such a lot different sociology or social technology dictionaries, during this translation of the Critical Dictionary of Sociology, taken from the second one French version of the Dictionary and edited by means of the English sociologist Peter Hamilton, the serious price of this unique paintings is eventually made to be had for a much broader audience.
Each access grapples at once with a subject, even if theoretical, epistemological, philosophical, political or empirical, and offers a robust assertion of what the authors give it some thought. The discussions are thought of yet argumentative. through reaffirming non-marxist kind of critique remains to be attainable, Boudon and Bourricaud have awarded a particular method of the foremost matters which confront the societies of the 20th and Twenty-First centuries.
For a few this paintings may be a textbook, for others an essential sourcebook of sociological options, and for many a fashion of establishing our eyes to new dimensions in our figuring out of the nice rules and theories of sociology.
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In other words, although each consumer considered as an individual might have, hypothetically, a clear consciousness of the deterioration of his own conditions, and of those of his fellow consumers, the logic of the situation is as likely as not to lead him to inaction rather than to action. The existence of the possibility of defection may often be used to explain why collective action does not appear when it would be expected to develop. In general terms, the probability that discontent will manifest itself as protest is reduced as defection appears less costly and more effective.
In both 20 Action (collective) cases the strategy of defection appears to be much more appropriate than the strategy of protest: even if the latter were to be effective its results would only appear long after the individual could hope to benefit himself. While the possibilities of ‘defection’ are limited, the appearance of protest—in other words, collective action—cannot in any event be guaranteed, even where the ‘consciousness’ of common interest is present. This conclusion is drawn from two situations which frequently occur: 1) where the ‘cost’ (in the widest sense of the term, to include both psychological and social costs as well as economic costs) of participation in collective action may be significant, while the marginal effectiveness of participation is virtually nil; 2) where the eventual benefits of collective action acquired by an individual do not depend upon his participation.
Die Probleme der Geschichtsphilosophie, Leipzig, Duncker and Humblot, 1905. , A study of sociology. Introduction by Talcott Parsons, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1961. Alienation The Latin word alienatio has a legal sense (the transfer or sale of a good or right), a psychological sense (dementia, insanity), a sociological sense (dissolution of the link between the individual and others), and a religious sense (dissolution of the link between the individual and the gods). In German, the word Entfremdung (literally, to become estranged from or a stranger to) covers a range of meanings, but to a large degree these parallel those of the Latin alienatio.
A Critical Dictionary of Sociology by Raymond Boudon, Francois Bourricaud