By Geoffrey Burnstock Ph.D., D.Sc., F.A.A., Marcello Costa (auth.)
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Extra info for Adrenergic Neurons: Their Organization, Function and Development in the Peripheral Nervous System
The duration of increased preganglionic activity is about two hours (Otten, Paravicini, Oesch & Thoenen, 1973). Appearance of increased T -OH in the terminals occurs only after a delay of one or two days (Thoenen, Mueller & Axelrod, 1970). These authors suggested that the increase is due to local induction and not to an axonal transport of enzyme induced in the cell body, although this hypothesis may need to be reconsidered following the finding of a fast axonal flow of T -OH (Coyle & Wooten, 1972; Wooten & Coyle, 1973; Table 2).
BH) and dopa decarboxylase (D DC) activity in superior cervical ganglia and adrenals of the rat. In the rat superior cervical ganglion increased sympathetic activity leads to an increase of tyrosine hydroxylase activity by a process of induction (synthesis of new enzyme). Reproduced with permission from Thoenen, 1972. increase in T -OH activity in the adrenergic cell bodies only after several hours and reaches a peak after several days (Axelrod, Mueller & Thoenen, 1970; Thoenen, 1970; Thoenen, Mueller & Axelrod, 1970; Thoenen, Kettler, Burkard & Saner, 1971; Bhatnagar & Moore, 1972; Figure 9).
37 ADRENERGIC NEURONS Small granular vesicles are predominant in the varicosities, but a small proportion oflarge granular vesicles is also present. The variable number of agranular vesicles represent 'empty' small granular vesicles. The size and proportion of large granular vesicles in neurons supplying the spleen differ from those seen in all other adrenergic neurons examined. This may form the basis of classification of adrenergic neurons into more than one type. Noradrenaline in vesicles is bound with ATP, Ca2+ and the proteins chromagranin A and dopamine-~-hydroxylase.
Adrenergic Neurons: Their Organization, Function and Development in the Peripheral Nervous System by Geoffrey Burnstock Ph.D., D.Sc., F.A.A., Marcello Costa (auth.)