By Nicholas R. Lardy
Explores the connection among the chinese language peasantry, who're the elemental base of aid for the innovative chinese language Communist celebration, and the state-led economy validated by way of the social gathering after 1949.
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Explores the connection among the chinese language peasantry, who're the basic base of help for the innovative chinese language Communist celebration, and the state-led economy validated through the social gathering after 1949.
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Extra resources for Agriculture in China's Modern Economic Development
Direct planning was to be based on explicit sown area and output targets drawn up at the national level and then disaggregated and passed down the administrative hierarchy to provinces, then counties, and ultimately to producer coops. 8 Many of the collectives were no more than paper organizations, hurriedly created by local cadres in response to higher-level pressure to demonstrate success in the "socialist high tide" movement. In many provinces direct planning of sown area and the imposition of certain production techniques were attempted.
Column 2 - State Statistical Bureau (1982b, 341). Column 4 - Data Office Statistical Work (1957b, 32). Column 5 - Chang Li-fen (1980, 30), Ministry of Agriculture Policy Research Office (1980, 30). The evolution of planning in Chinese agriculture 37 to adjust the composition of grain consumption. Shantung, for example, usually exported 10 to 15 percent of its wheat but imported coarse grains (Sun Ching-chih 1957, 127). The volume of interprovincial transfers typically rose in years of widespread national disasters, such as 1954, but was less in years of excellent harvests such as 1955.
The sum of the excess of marginal benefits over marginal costs for the number of units produced less than Qopt, o r ABE, represents the welfare loss incurred under price controls when a state of nature unforeseen by the planners occurs. The choice between price and quantity controls depends on which leads to an outcome that more closely approximates the competitive market outcome qopt. I assume that costs preclude the use of contingent controls in which either price or quantity targets for each possible outcome of the random variables in the production function are specified in advance.
Agriculture in China's Modern Economic Development by Nicholas R. Lardy